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VOICE: The Neuroscience Behind Duty to Intervene

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Recognize the moment when speaking up is the right thing to do, and plan in advance how to respond when the moment appears.



Use The SCARF® Model to understand the potential social threat present in a speaking up moment. Use proven scientific techniques to manage strong emotions when approaching a ‘speaking up’ conversation.



Use positive SCARF signals to speak up in a less threatening & more productive manner to reduce the likelihood of further escalation. Acknowledge and encourage others to speak up to you.

There are five domains in which human beings are most likely to experience when speaking up to intervene. The SCARF® Model describes these five primary categories.

Status — Am I respected?

Certainty — Do I have enough information?

Autonomy — Do I have a choice?

Relatedness — Do I belong?

Fairness — Is this fair?

An understanding of what triggers humans to react in a threatening manner enables us to quickly assess and craft difficult conversations for productive outcomes.

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Duty to Intervene Training

As of January 2021, 72 of the 100 largest police agencies have implemented duty to intervene policies; of those, 21 were adopted since June 5, 2020 (McKesson et al., 2020). Officers are largely supportive of duty to intervene policies—a recent poll of 8,000 officers found that 84% believed officers should be required to intervene when they think another officer is using unnecessary force (Morin et al., 2017), yet compliance with policies is uneven at best.

We invest time in understanding your needs and policies up-front, then work closely with your team to develop and deliver the appropriate duty-to-intervene training solution. We’ll help you find the best way to integrate a custom solution into your training procedures, and support you in maintaining and evolving this solution as your policies, challenges, and communities inevitably change over time.

We don’t just sell equipment; we partner with agencies and their instructors to develop cognitive tools for modern police training and cultural awareness.




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VOICE training supports an agency culture that makes speaking up less threatening, more effective, and more likely to be done in a productive manner for all stakeholders.

VOICE: Duty to Intervene